In Athens people worship their minds. Sparta vs AthensBy: Bryce BoganBrains VS BrawnAthens They had a peaceful And well educated society.Sparta They were a strong government based on war and violence. Athens was renowned as a center of wisdom and learning. << endobj Athens and Sparta. Sparta and Athens - these two city-states have been credited for being the cradle of western civilization. /ca 1.0 The Original Thucydides Trap: Sparta vs. Athens. Athens maintained its empire through naval power. Demosthenes argued for a retreat to Athens, but Nicias at first refused. Is this statement about Sparta, Athens or both of them: Boys start training at age 7 and were in the military until age 60. answer choices . /AIS false But, due to bad weather, the Athenians were unable to rescue their stranded crews or finish off the Spartan fleet. HAVE FUN! Athens and Sparta have their own information sheet where you will find the answers and the other sheet is the questions. From 414 BC, Darius II, ruler of the Achaemenid Empire had started to resent increasing Athenian power in the Aegean and had his satrap Tissaphernes enter into an alliance with Sparta against Athens, which in 412 BC led to the Persian reconquest of the greater part of Ionia. Through cunning strategy, Lysander totally defeated the Athenian fleet, in 405 BC, at the Battle of Aegospotami, destroying 168 ships and capturing some three or four thousand Athenian sailors. Athens proceeded to bring under its control all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, ushering in a period which is known to history as the Athenian Empire. The Athenians however allowed Alcibiades to go on the expedition without being tried (many believed in order to better plot against him). The Spartans and Athenians agreed to exchange the hostages for the towns captured by Brasidas, and signed a truce. Nicias then sent word to Athens asking for reinforcements. Sparta . Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta were the two largest Greek city-states of the Ancient world. Athens vs. Sparta 1146 Words | 5 Pages. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. The surrender stripped Athens of its walls, its fleet, and all of its overseas possessions. According to the textbook World Civilizations, Sparta is located in the southern Peloponnesus about eighty miles from Athens. Athens stretched their military activities into Boeotia and Aetolia, quelled the Mytilenean revolt and began fortifying posts around the Peloponnese. << "He then assigned to Lysander all the tribute which came in from his cities and belonged to him personally, and gave him also the balance he had on hand; and, after reminding Lysander how good a friend he was both to the Lacedaemonian state and to him personally, he set out on the journey to his father." Athens was based on a democratic form of government where people were elected on an annual basis. Despite their victory, these failures caused outrage in Athens and led to a controversial trial. x����_w��q����h���zΞ=u۪@/����t-�崮gw�=�����RK�Rl�¶Z����@�(� �E @�B.�����|�0�L� ��~>��>�L&C}��;3���lV�U���t:�V{ |�\R4)�P�����ݻw鋑�������: ���JeU��������F��8 �D��hR:YU)�v��&����) ��P:YU)�4Q��t�5�v�� `���RF)�4Qe�#a� Facing starvation and disease from the prolonged siege, Athens surrendered in 404 BC,[2] and its allies soon surrendered as well. Athens vs. Sparta Athens and Sparta were so different that they hardly had anything in common. Athens is considered to be the home of western civilization. Athens vs Sparta Athens vs Sparta. Prominent among the states that never experienced tyranny was Sparta, a fact remarked on even in antiquity. An oligarchical revolution occurred in Athens, in which a group of 400 seized power. By Natalie . In the final stages of the preparations for departure, the hermai (religious statues) of Athens were mutilated by unknown persons, and Alcibiades was charged with religious crimes. In addition, the fear of a general revolt of helots emboldened by the nearby Athenian presence drove the Spartans to action. Sparta . Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). Danielle Palawasta Athens vs. Sparta Persuasive Research Paper Henry/Lih- LA/SS- Per. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. Many of the citizens of Attica abandoned their farms and moved inside the Long Walls, which connected Athens to its port of Piraeus. Thucydides was dispatched with a force which arrived too late to stop Brasidas capturing Amphipolis; Thucydides was exiled for this, and, as a result, had the conversations with both sides of the war which inspired him to record its history. >> Sparta V.S. For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see, For the book by the Greek historian Thucydides, see, Achaemenid support for Sparta (414–404 BC). The Athenian army, attempting to withdraw overland to other, more friendly Sicilian cities, was divided and defeated; the entire Athenian fleet was destroyed, and virtually the entire Athenian army was sold off into slavery. The Athenian fleet, the most dominant in Greece, went on the offensive, winning a victory at Naupactus. 30 seconds . Athens and Sparta comparison activity. A peace with Sparta might have been possible, but the Athenian fleet, now based on the island of Samos, refused to accept the change. /Length 7 0 R Parnon (1,935 m). These ships were then released, and served as the core of the Athenians' fleet throughout the rest of the war. At each station you will read the text, determine important information, and capture your notes on your graphic organizer. Threatened with starvation, the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow. in. Check Out This Informative Sparta Vs. Athens Comparison Chart. "Lysander,", Last edited on 27 December 2020, at 18:25, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, Kirshner, Jonathan. At the end of the first year of the war, Pericles gave his famous Funeral Oration (431 BC). The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. Syracuse, the principal city of Sicily, was not much smaller than Athens, and conquering all of Sicily would have brought Athens an immense amount of resources. It is the responsibility of each user to comply with 3rd party copyright laws. Women were able to receive an education, have property, and as girls were trained in group exercises and agility. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). Moreover, Spartan slaves, known as helots, needed to be kept under control, and could not be left unsupervised for long periods of time. Instead of attacking at once, Nicias procrastinated and the campaigning season of 415 BC ended with Syracuse scarcely damaged. Demosthenes was chosen and led another fleet to Sicily, joining his forces with those of Nicias. After the death of Pericles, the Athenians turned somewhat against his conservative, defensive strategy and to the more aggressive strategy of bringing the war to Sparta and its allies. endobj The Spartan strategy during the first war, known as the Archidamian War (431–421 BC) after Sparta's king Archidamus II, was to invade the land surrounding Athens. Sparta was later humbled by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, but the rivalry between Athens and Sparta was brought to an end a few decades later when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece except Sparta, which was later subjugated by Philip's son Alexander in 331 BC. The Ionian states that rebelled expected protection, and many rejoined the Athenian side. by A.H. Clough. /Producer (�� Q t 4 . I made with help from others (narrated by Steve, written by Anthony) about the battle of Mantinea. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. athens vs sparta chart, athens vs sparta using this in our lesson tomorrow, athens vs sparta venn diagram sada margarethaydon com, athens vs sparta brochure, comparing athens and sparta … [19] Historians that attribute responsibility for the war to Athens cite this event as the main cause for blame. Between 410 and 406, Athens won a continuous string of victories, and eventually recovered large portions of its empire. What then ensued was a period, referred to as the Pentecontaetia (the name given by Thucydides), in which Athens increasingly became in fact an empire,[8] carrying out an aggressive war against Persia and increasingly dominating other city-states. [4][5] The war also wrought subtler changes to Greek society; the conflict between democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta, each of which supported friendly political factions within other states, made war a common occurrence in the Greek world. � �l%��Ž��� �W��H* �=BR d�J:::�� �$ @H* �,�T Y � �@R d�� �I �� Sign up for free. With its victory at Mantinea, Sparta pulled itself back from the brink of utter defeat, and re-established its hegemony throughout the Peloponnese. /SMask /None>> Nicias and Demosthenes marched their remaining forces inland in search of friendly allies. /Creator (�� w k h t m l t o p d f 0 . /Height 155 [37], "Athenian War" redirects here. The Athenians did not act solely from altruism: rallied on by Alcibiades, the leader of the expedition, they held visions of conquering all of Sicily. A further source of provocation was an Athenian decree, issued in 433/2 BC, imposing stringent trade sanctions on Megarian citizens (once more a Spartan ally after the conclusion of the First Peloponnesian War). Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Ancient Greek warfare, meanwhile, originally a limited and formalized form of conflict, was transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale. Spa rta. >> In 411 BC this fleet engaged the Spartans at the Battle of Syme. Athens and Sparta Comparison Chart and ReadingThis fantastic resource for your Ancient Greece unit features a 1-page reading that describes the major differences between Athens and Sparta. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.[6]. Sparta was based on oligarchy and had two rulers. The Battle of Mantinea was the largest land battle fought within Greece during the Peloponnesian War. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. � The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens was completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. The Lacedaemonians, with their neighbors the Tegeans, faced the combined armies of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia. The faction hostile to Alcibiades triumphed in Athens following a minor Spartan victory by their skillful general Lysander at the naval battle of Notium in 406 BC. That's why I want to tell you about their differences. Between the two, there were similarities and differences. endobj The location of Rm. Corinth and Syracuse were slow to bring their fleets into the Aegean, and Sparta's other allies were also slow to furnish troops or ships. [21] The Athenians, in response, reminded the Spartans of their record of military success and opposition to Persia, and warned them of the dangers of confronting such a powerful state, ultimately encouraging Sparta to seek arbitration as provided by the Thirty Years' Peace. He also persuaded the Athenian fleet to attack the Spartans at the battle of Cyzicus in 410. Thucydides reports that the Corinthians condemned Sparta's inactivity up to that point, warning the Spartans that if they continued to remain passive while the Athenians were energetically active, they would soon find themselves outflanked and without allies. Seizing its opportunity, the Spartan fleet sailed at once to the Dardanelles, the source of Athens's grain. Sparta and Athens Sparta The distinctiveness of Sparta. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the largest river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water.The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. The Athenian force consisted of over 100 ships and some 5,000 infantry and light-armored troops. [18] The Corinthians, outraged by these actions, encouraged Potidaea to revolt and assured them that they would ally with them should they revolt from Athens. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. In this activity, students must fill in a venn diagram to compare the traits of Athens and Sparta. 2018. Relations broke … /Type /XObject All of this was due, in no small part, to Alcibiades. Alarmed, Corcyra sought an alliance with Athens, which after debate and input from both Corcyra and Corinth, decided to swear a defensive alliance with Corcyra. "[7] Indeed, the nearly fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. After additional setbacks, Nicias seemed to agree to a retreat until a bad omen, in the form of a lunar eclipse, delayed any withdrawal. Although the power of Athens was broken, it made something of a recovery as a result of the Corinthian War and continued to play an active role in Greek politics. [10] According to Thucydides, although the Spartans took no action at this time, they "secretly felt aggrieved". The Spartan fleet under Callicratidas lost 70 ships and the Athenians lost 25 ships. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved. 7) In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from the Achaemenid Empire, supported rebellions in Athens's subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens's empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. According to Thucydides, the Spartans acted in this way out of fear that the Athenians would switch sides and support the helots; the offended Athenians repudiated their alliance with Sparta. The plague ravaged the densely packed city, and in the long run, was a significant cause of its final defeat. [9], Friction between Athens and the Peloponnesian states, including Sparta, began early in the Pentecontaetia; in the wake of the departure of the Persians from Greece, Sparta attempted to prevent the reconstruction of the walls of Athens (without the walls, Athens would have been defenseless against a land attack and subject to Spartan control), but was rebuffed. SHARE THE AWESOMENESS. [36], A symbolic peace treaty was signed by the mayors of Athens and Sparta 2,400 years after the war ended, on March 12, 1996. After arriving in Sicily, Alcibiades was recalled to Athens for trial. Emboldened, the Argives and their allies, with the support of a small Athenian force under Alcibiades, moved to seize the city of Tegea, near Sparta. Sparta was known for its military might and prowess, as well as its equality. Rising to particular importance in Athenian democracy at this time was Cleon, a leader of the hawkish elements of the Athenian democracy. A fifteen-year conflict, commonly known as the First Peloponnesian War, ensued, in which Athens fought intermittently against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina, and a number of other states. "The winter following Tissaphernes put Iasus in a state of defence, and passing on to Miletus distributed a month's pay to all the ships as he had promised at Lacedaemon, at the rate of an Attic drachma a day for each man." Athens vs Sparta Sierra Cook American Military University Background The purpose of this assignment is to engage in a battle of wits to prove whether Athens or Sparta is … 3 0 obj The Corinthians, the Spartans, and others in the Peloponnesian League sent more reinforcements to Syracuse, in the hopes of driving off the Athenians; but instead of withdrawing, the Athenians sent another hundred ships and another 5,000 troops to Sicily. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. Athens Vs.Sparta Tyler King Greece, a country united by its name, but divided by its opinions, was separated into many city-states. [28][29][30], Cyrus the Younger would later obtain the support of the Spartans in return, after having asked them "to show themselves as good friend to him, as he had been to them during their war against Athens", when he led his own expedition to Susa in 401 BC in order to topple his brother, Artaxerxes II.[31]. However, the Athenian warships participated in the battle nevertheless, and the arrival of additional Athenian triremes was enough to dissuade the Corinthians from exploiting their victory, thus sparing much of the routed Corcyrean and Athenian fleet.[17]. The democrats at Samos, loyal to the bitter last, held on slightly longer, and were allowed to flee with their lives. Q. This debate was attended by members of the league and an uninvited delegation from Athens, which also asked to speak, and became the scene of a debate between the Athenians and the Corinthians. In 403 BC, the oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus. Only twelve Athenian ships escaped, and several of these sailed to Cyprus, carrying the strategos (general) Conon, who was anxious not to face the judgment of the Assembly. The Peloponnesian War was soon followed by the Corinthian War (394–386 BC), which, although it ended inconclusively, helped Athens regain some of its former greatness. Thasos was an island in northern Aegean and a member of the Delian League which had disagreements with Athens about control of precious metal mines and trade on the mainland. The Athenians captured 300 Spartan hoplites. Athens vs. Sparta. [3] Tissaphernes also helped fund the Peloponnesian fleet. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. in Xenophon, Plutarch. He took command of the Syracusan troops, and in a series of battles defeated the Athenian forces, and prevented them from invading the city. $ @H* �,�T Y � �@R d�� ���{���ؘ]>cNwy���M� The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. After his defection, Alcibiades claimed to the Spartans that the Athenians planned to use Sicily as a springboard for the conquest of all of Italy and Carthage, and to use the resources and soldiers from these new conquests to conquer the Peloponnese. Though these are not very far away from each other, there … SURVEY . Sparta and Athens represent opposite poles of the social and political development of the Greek city-state. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his dying father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor. The plague wiped out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Pericles and his sons. Conflict between the states flared up again in 465 BC, when a helot revolt broke out in Sparta. The delay allowed the Syracusans to send for help from Sparta, who sent their general Gylippus to Sicily with reinforcements. ", LibriVox: The History of the Peloponnesian War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peloponnesian_War&oldid=996620383, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 18:25. The Athenians were thoroughly defeated. In Sparta people worship their bodies. %PDF-1.4 /Subtype /Image /CreationDate (D:20201003084407+03'00') In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse, Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force in 413 BC. Main Differences Between Athens and Sparta. [22] Undeterred, a majority of the Spartan assembly voted to declare that the Athenians had broken the peace, essentially declaring war.[23]. By the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. Upon arriving, he raised up a force from several Sicilian cities, and went to the relief of Syracuse. /SA true Perhaps worst of all, the nearby silver mines were totally disrupted, with as many as 20,000 Athenian slaves freed by the Spartan hoplites at Decelea. Roughly one-third to two-thirds of the Athenian population died. [20], At the request of the Corinthians, the Spartans summoned members of the Peloponnesian League to Sparta in 432 BC, especially those who had grievances with Athens to make their complaints to the Spartan assembly. At the same time, Athens greatly increased its own power; a number of its formerly independent allies were reduced, over the course of the century, to the status of tribute-paying subject states of the Delian League. [16], The more immediate events that led to war involved Athens and Corinth. Class, Faction and Policy 403–386 B.C., New York 2014, p. 80. After the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta took over the Athenian empire and kept all of its tribute revenues for itself; Sparta's allies, who had made greater sacrifices for the war effort than had Sparta, got nothing.[3]. If I had the option to live in Ancient Sparta or Ancient Athens, I would undoubtedly select Athens. Its empire began as a small group of city-states, called the Delian League – from the island of Delos, on which they kept their treasury – that came together to ensure that the Greco-Persian Wars were truly over. 5) For a short period of time, Athens was ruled by the "Thirty Tyrants", and democracy was suspended. 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